This article applies to:
Experiment Author: Adapted from STEP and used with permission of Brian MacWhinney
This experiment gives groups of words to be remembered, then a distractor task. The words to be remembered are all of a specific category for a certain number of trials, and then the category switches. The amount that the original category and the new category are different can be inferred from the amount of improvement on the first group of the new set.
In this experiment On each trial, each of the following occurs: three words flash on the screen, one at a time. Then several arithmetic comparisons appear (for example "27<34" and "65>55"). Decide quickly if they are true or false. Press "t" for true and "f" for false. Recall the three words that were flashed on the screen, typng each into a dialogue box. There are 20 trials in this experiment.
Wickens, D.D. (1973). Some characteristics of word encoding. Memory & Cognition, 1, 485-490.
Cited Experiment Abstract
This paper presents the results of a series of experiments using the release from proactive inhibition technique for identifying the salient encoding attributes of words The technique uses the Brown-Peterson paradigm, but, after three trials on words of one class, a fourth trial is given with words of another class. The power of the class encoding is inferred from the extent of gain (release from PI) found on the shift trial. The studies reported show a high degree of effectiveness for semantic variables; practically no effectiveness for grammatical variables; a moderate amount for physical variables (i.e., figure-ground shift); and varying amounts for other shifts such as word frequency, imagery, language of the presentation to bilingual Ss. Some evidence is also given for the occurrence of simultaneous multiple encoding.
Works Cited by the Experiment
Baldwin, R.B. Release from PI and the physical aspects of words. Unpublished master's thesis. Ohio State University, 1969.
Bentler, P.M., & La Voie, A.L. An extension of semantic space. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior , 1972, 11, 174-182.
Gibson, J.J. Constancy and invariance in perception. In G. Kepes (Ed.), The nature and art of motion. New York: Braziller, 1965.
Goedel, G.D. Connotive evaluation and concreteness in short-term memory. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 1972.
Goggin, J., & Wickens, D.D. Proactive interference and language change in short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 1971, 10, 453-458.
Hopkins, R.H., Edwards, R.E., & Gavelek, J.R. Presentation modality as an encoding variable in short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971, 90, 319-325.
Lachar, B., & Goggin, J. Effects of changes in word length on proactive interference in short-term memory. Psychonomic Science, 1969, 17, 213-215.
Loess, H. Short-term memory, word class and sequence of items. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1967, 74, 556-561.
Reutener, D.B. Class shift, symbolic shift, and background shift in short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972, 93, 90-94.
Rubin, S.M. proactive and retroactive inhibition in short-term memory as a function of sensory modality. Unpublished manuscript, Human Performance Center, University of Michigan, 1967.
Swanson, J.M., & Wickens, D.D. Preprocessing on the basis of frequency of occurence. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970, 2, 378-383.
Turvey, M.T., & Egan, J. Contextual change and release from proactive interference in short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969, 81, 396-397.
Wickens, D.D. Encoding categories of words: An empirical approach to meaning. Psychological Review, 1970, 77, 1-15.
Wickens, D.D. Characterstics of word encoding. In A.W. Melton and E. Martin (Eds.), Coding processes in human memory. Washington, DC: Winston & Sons, 1972.
Wickens, D.D., & Clark, S.E., Hill, F.A., & Wittinger, R.P. Grammatical class as an encoding category in short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1968, 78, 599-604.
Wickens, D.D., & Engle, R.W. Imagery and abstractness in short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970, 84, 268-272.
Wittinger, R.P. Phasic arousal in short-term memory. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 1967.