This article applies to:
Experiment Author: Susan Campbell. Adapted from STEP and used with permission of Brian MacWhinney
This experiment compared the priming in a word identification task for synonyms (TOAD for FROG), words that sound like synonyms (TOWED), non-words that sound like synonyms (TODE), and controls that look like the synonym (TORD, TOLD). The prime is flashed on the screen, followed by a mask, then the word itself, and participants are supposed to name the word.
In this experiment participants are shown a series of words in rapid succession, responding verbally, repeating the words that display in lowercase. Words display in pairs, a capitalized word (Prime Word) displays for 40 milliseconds, followed by the target word in lowercase which appears for 400 milliseconds. After a verbal response participants press the spacebar to move on to the next set of words. The experiment displays 60 trials.
Lukatela, G. and Turvey, M. T. (1994). Visual lexical access is initially phonological: 1. Evidence from associative priming by words, homophones, and pseudohomophones. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123(2), 107-128.
Cited Experiment Abstract
In 9 experiments, a target word (e.g., frog) was named following an associate (TOAD), or a word
(e.g., TOWED) or nonword (e.g., TODE) homophonic with the associate. At brief (e.g., 50 ms) stimulus
onset asynchronies (SOAs), the 3 primes produced equal associative priming. At a long SOA (250
ms), priming by TOAD was matched by TODE but not by TOWED. Equal priming at brief SOAs by the
3 primes and no priming by orthographic controls (TOLD, TORD) suggests that lexical access is
initially phonological. TOWED priming less than TODE at SOA = 250 ms suggests that phonologically
activated representations whose input orthography does not match the addressed spelling (available
only for words) are eventually suppressed. Phonological constraints on lexical access precede and
set the stage for orthographic constraints.
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STEP: Visual Lexical Access is Initially Phonolgical: 2 
Clear Stimulus and Leave More Time for Response 
STEP: Automatic (prelexical) Phonetic Activation in Silent Word Reading 
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