This article applies to:
Experiment Author: Adapted from STEP and used with permission of Brian MacWhinney
Participants are given a target (e.g., "Blue letter") and a display of several letters in different colors. They are asked whether the target was present. This should show that the more features ("Blue X" versus "Blue Letter") participants have to look for, the slower they will be. Additionally, a blue X should be harder to find in a set of green X's and N's than in a set of just green N's.
In this experiment a target is specified for each block of trials. The target can be a letter or a color or both. A slide with a varying number of distractor stimuli appears. The target stimulus may or may not be present on any given slide. Press the "y" key as quickly as possible if the target stimulus is present. Press the "n" key if the target stimulus is not present. There are 72 trials in this experiment.
Treisman, A.M., & Gelade, G. (1980). A feature-integration theory of attention. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 97-136.
Cited Experiment Abstract
A new hypothesis about the role of focused attention is proposed. The feature-integration theory of attention suggests that attention must be directed serially to each stimulus in a display whenever conjunctions of more than one separable feature are needed to characterize or distinguish the possible objects presented. A number of predictions were tested in a variety of paradigms including visual search, texture segregation, identification and localization, and using both separable dimensions (shape and color) and local elements or parts of figures (lines, curves, etc. in letters as the features to be integrated into complex wholes. The results were in general consistent with the hypothesis. They offer a new set of criteria for distinguishing separable from integral features and a new rationale for predicting which tasks will show attention limits and which will not.
Works Cited by the Experiment
Biederman, I., Glass, A.L., & Stacy, E.W. Searching for objects in real-world scenes. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973, 97, 22-27.
Corteen, R.S., & Wood, B. Autonomic responses to shock-associated words in an unattended channel. Journal of Experimetnal Psychology, 1972, 94, 308-313.
Critchley, M. The problem of visual agnosia. Journal of Neurological Sciences, 1964, 1, 274-290.
Cutting, J.E. Auditory and linguistic processes in speech perception: Inferences from six fusions in dichotic listening. Psychological Review, 1976, 83, 114-140.
De Valois, R.L., & De Valois, K.K. Neural coding of color. In E.C. Carterette & M.P. Friedman (Eds.), Handbook of perception. New York: Academic Press, 1975. Vol. V, pp. 117-166.
Efron, R., & Yund, E.W. Dichotic competition of simultaneous tone bursts of different frequency. I. Dissociation of pitch from lateralization and loudnessss. Neuropsychologia, 1974, 12, 149-156.
Eriksen, C.W.W., & Hoffman, J.E. Temporal and spatial characteristics of selective encoding from visual displays. Perception and Psychophysics, 1972, 12, 201-204.
Estes, W.K. Interactions of signal and background variables in visual processing. Perception and Psychophysics, 1972, 12, 278-286.
Fisher, D.F., Monty, R.A., & Glucksberg, S. Visual confusion matrices: fact or artifact. Journal of Psychology, 1969, 71, 111-125.
Forster, P.M., & Govier, E. Discrimination without awareness. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1978, 30, 289-296.
Gardner, G.T. Evidence for independent parallel channels in tachistoscopic perception. Cognitive Psychology, 1973, 4, 130-155.
Gardner, H. The shattered mind. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975. P. 166.
Garner, W.R. The processing of information and structure. Potomac, MD: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1974.
Gibson, E.J. Perceptual learning and the theory of word perception. Cognitive Psychology, 1971, 2, 351-368.
Hecaen, H., & Albert, M.L. Human neuropsychology. New York: Wiley, 1978.
Hodge, D.C. Legibility of a uniform stroke width alphabet: I. Relative legibility of upper and lower case letters. Journal of Enginnering Psychology, 1962, 1, 34-46.
Jonides, J., & Gleitman, H. A conceptual category effect in visual search: O as letter or as digit. Perception and Psychophysics, 1972, 12, 457-460.
Julesz, B. Experiments in the visual perception of texture. Scientific American, 1975, 232, 34-43.
Kahneman, D., & Henik, A. Effects of visual grouping on immediate recall and selective attention. In S. Dornic (Ed.), Attention and performance VI, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1977. Pp. 307-332.
LaBerge, D. Attention and the mearuement of perceptual learning. Memory of Cognition, 1973, 1, 268-276.
Lawrence, D.H. Two studies of visual search for word targets with controlled rates of presentation. Perception and Psychophysics, 1971, 10, 85-89.
Lewis, J.L. Semantic processing of unattended messages using dichotic listening. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970, 85, 225-228.
Liepmann, H. Uber die agnostischen Storungen. Neurologisches Zentralblatt, 1908, 27, 609-617.
Luria, A.R. The man with a shattered world. New York: Basic Books, 1972.
MacKay, D.G. Aspects of the theory of comprehension, memory and attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973, 25, 22-40.
Monahan, J.S., & Lockhead, G.R. Identification of integral stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1977, 106, 94-110.
Neisser, U. Cognitive Psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967.
Neisser, U. Cognition and reality. San Francisco: Freeman, 1977.
Neisser, U., Novick, R., & Lazar, R. Searching for ten targets simultaneously. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1963, 17, 955-961.
Pew, R.W., & Gardner, G.T. Unpublished data. University of Michigan, summarized in Fisher, Monty and Glucksberg, 1969.
Posner, M.I. Chronometric explorations of mind. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1978.
Rabbitt, P.M.A. Learning to ignore irrelevant information. British Journal of Psychology, 1967, 55, 403-414.
Rock, I., Halper, F., & Clayton, R. The perception and recognition of complex figures. Cognitive Psychology, 1972, 3, 655-673.
Shepard, R.N. Attention and the metric structure of the stimulus space. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1964, 1, 54-87.
Shiffrin, R.M., & Schneider, W. Controlled and automatic human information processing. II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending and a general theory. Psychological Review, 1977, 84, 127-190.
Townsend, J.T. Thoeretical analysis of an alphabetic confusion matrix. Perception and Psychophysics, 9, 40-50.
Treisman, A. Focused attention in the perception and retrieval of multidimensional stimuli. Perception and Psychophysics, 1977, 22, 1-11.
Treisman, A. The psychological reality of levels of processing. In L.S. Cermak & F.I.M. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing and human memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1979.
Treisman, A., Squire, R., & Green, J. Semantic processing in dichotic listening? A replication. Memory & Cognition, 1974, 2, 641-646.
Treisman, A., Sykes, M., & Gelade, G. Selective attention and stimulus integration. In S. Dornic (Ed.), Attention and performance VI. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1977. Pp. 333-361.
White, M.J. Identification and categoriazation in visual search. Memory & Cognition, 1977, 5, 648-657.
Wolford, G. Perturbation model for letter identification. Psychological Review, 1975, 82, 184-199.
Zeki, S.M. The functional organization of projections from striate to prestriate visual cortex in the rhesus monkey. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 1976, 15, 591-600.