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Experiment Author: Adapted from STEP and used with permission of Brian MacWhinney
This experiment presents 50 sentences consecutively, for 4 seconds each. Read each sentence aloud when it appears on the screen, paying attention specifically to the pair of words with capatilization. A recall test on the words with capatilization follows the presentation of the 50 sentences. The recall test presents a noun and often a preceding adjective. Attempt to recall any previous presentation of the noun. Press "1" if the noun was present previously, press "9" if the noun was not present previously. The recall test includes immediate feedback. There are 79 trials in the recall section of the experiment.
Thomson, D.M., & Tulving, E. Associative encoding and retrieval: Weak and strong cues. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 86, 255-262.
Cited Experiment Abstract
Data from three experiments are reported in support of the encoding specificity hypothesis of retrieval: the effectiveness of retrieval cues depends upon the specific format of encoding of the to-be-remembered (TBR) words at the time of their storage, regardless of how strongly the cues are associated with the TBR words in other situation. In the critical experimental conditions, TBR words were presented for study in presence of weakly associated cue words. Recall of the TBR words in the presence of these cues was greatly facilitated in comparison with noncued recall; recall of the TBR words in presence of their strongest normative associates, which had not been seen at input, did not differ from noncued recall.
Works Cited by the Experiment
Bahrick, H.P. Measurement of memory by prompted recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969, 79, 213-219.
Bahrick, H.P. Two-phase model for prompted recall. Psychological Review, 1970, 77, 215-225.
Bilodeau, E.A., & Blick, K.A. Courses of mixed recall over long-term retention intervals as related to strength of preexperimental habits of word association. Psychological Reports, 1965, 16( Monogr. Suppl. No. 6-V16), 1173-1192.
Bilodeau, E.A., & Howell, D.c. Free association norms. (Catalog No. D210.2:F87) Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1965.
Fox, P.W., Blick, K.A., & Bilodeau, E.A. Stimulation and prediction of verbal recall and misrecall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1964, 68, 321-322.
Riegel, K.F. Free associative responses to the 200 stimuli of the Michigan restricted association norms. (USPHS Rep. No. 8) Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1965 (United States Public Health Service Grant MH 07619).
Tulving, E., & Osler, S. Effectiveness of retrieval cues in memory for words. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1968, 77, 593-601.
Tulving, E., & Pearlstone, Z. Availability versus accessibility of information in memory for words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1966, 4, 381-391.
Wood, G. Category names as cues for the recall of category instances. Psychonomic Science, 1967, 9, 323-324.