This article applies to:
Experiment Author: Adapted from STEP and used with permission of Brian MacWhinney
This experiment investigates how perceptual enhancement is similar to recognition memory. In it, participants are presented with a series of words that they are to read quickly. Then they are given a task where they see a word for a very short duration, followed by a mask and are asked to identify it. They tend to identify the words they saw in the original list more often than new words.
This experiment has two blocks of trials. In the first block, participants are presented a word and must read it aloud. Pressing the spacebar will present a new word. Participants are to respond as quickly and accurately as possible. There are 90 samples that will be presented in this way. In the second block of trials, a fixation point will appear for 500 milliseconds followed by a word for 35 milliseconds. Participants will type the word into a dialogue box that appears after each word. 100 words will appear, 90 that were presented in the previous section and 10 that were not presented.
Jacoby, L.L. (1983). Perceptual Enhancement: Persistent Effects of an Experience. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 9 (1), 21-38
Cited Experiment Abstract
Presenting a word enhances its later perceptual identification. This article focuses on the relation between this effect on perception and recognition memory. Prior experiments have revealed that perceptual enhancement persists over days but, like recognition memory, is influenced by manipulations of retrieval conditions. I conclude that both perceputal and memory tasks rely on the retrieval of memory for whole prior processing episodes but can differ in terms of the number an nature of retrieval cues that they provide. I describe perception and memory within a common framework.
Works Cited by the Experiment
Broadbent, D. E. & Broadbent, M. H. P. Some further data concerning the word frequency effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1975, 105, 297-308.
Brooks, L. R. Non-analytic concept formation and memory for instances. In E. Rosch & B. Lloyd (Eds.). Cognition and Categorization. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaun, 1978.
Eich, J. E. The cue-dependent nature of state-dependent retrieval. Memory and Cognition, 1980, 8, 157-173.
Franks, J. J., Plybon, C., & Auble, P. M. Units of episodic memory in perceptual recognition. Memory & Cognition 1982, 10, 62-68.
Friedman, A. Framing pictures: The role of knowledge in automatized encoding and memory for gist. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1979, 108, 316-355.
Gregg, V. Word frequency, recognition, and recall. In J. Brown (Ed.), Recall and recognition. London: Wiley, 1976.
Jacoby, L. L. Effects of organization on recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972, 92, 325-331.
Jacoby, L. L. Remembering the data: Analyzing interactive processes in reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, in press.
Jacoby, L. L. & Dallas, M. On the relationship between autobiographical memory and perceptual learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1981, 3, 306-340.
Jacoby, L. L., & Witherspoon, D. Remembering without awareness. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1982, 35, 300-324.
Kolers, P. A. Reading a year later. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1976, 2, 554-565.
Mandler, G. Recognizing: The judgment of previous occurrence. Psychological Review, 1980, 87, 252-271.
McClelland, J. L., & Rumelhart, D. E. An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: Part 1. An account of basic findings. Psychological Review, 1981, 88, 375-407.
Medin, D. L., & Schaffer, M. M. Context theory of classification learning. Psychological Review, 1978, 85, 207-238.
Morton, J. Interaction of information in word recognition. Psychological Review, 1969, 76, 165-178.
Morton, J. Facilitation in word recognition: Experiments causing change in the logogen model. In P. A. Kolers, M. E. Wrolstal, & H. Bonma (Eds.), Processing of visible language (Vol. 1). New York: Plenum Press, 1979.
Murrell, G. A., & Morton, J. Word recognition and morphemic structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1974, 102, 963-968.
Nelson, D. L., & McEvoy, C. L. Effects of retention interval and modality on sensory and semantic trace information. Memory & Cognition 1979, 7, 257-262.
Posner, M. I., & Snyder, C. R. R. Facilitation and inhibition in the processing of signals. In P. M. A. Rabbit & S. Dornic (Eds.), Attention and performance V. New York: Academic Press, 1975.
Postman, L., & Keppel, G. Conditions of cumulative proactive inhibition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1977, 106, 376-403.
Ratcliff, R. A theory of memory retrieval. Psychological Review, 1978, 85, 59-108.
Scarborough, D., Cortese, C., & Scarborough, H. Frequency and repetition effects in lexical memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1977, 3, 1-17.
Schiffrin, R. M., & Schneider, W. Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review, 1977, 84, 127-190.
Smith, S. M. Remembering in and out of context. Journal of Experimental PSychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1979, 5, 360-371.
Smith, S. M., Glenberg, A., & Bjork, R. A. Environmental context and human memory. Memory & Cognition, 1978, 6, 342-353.
Thorndike, E. L., & Lorge, I. The teachers' word book of 30,000 words. New York: Columbia University, 1944.
Todres, A. K., & Watkins, M. J. A part-set cuing effect in recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1981, 7, 91-99.
Tulving, E. Ecphoric processes in recall and recognition. In J. Brown (Ed.), Recall and recognition. London: Wiley, 1976.
Tulving, E., Schachter, D. L., & Stark, H. A. Priming effects in word-fragment completion are independent of recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 1982, 8, 336-342.
Underwood, B. J., Broder, P. K., & Zimmerman, J. Retention of verbal discrimination lists as a function of number of prior lists, word frequency, and type of list. Journal of Expeirmental Psychology, 1973, 100, 101-105.
Underwood, B. J., Zimmerman, J., & Freund, J. S. Retention of frequency infoirmation with observations on recognition and recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971, 81, 149-162.
Wason, P. C., & Johnson-Laird, P. N. Psychology of reasoning: Structure and context. London: Batsford, 1972.